Circa 1903: Newly hired University Supervising Architect John Galen Howard begins designing a bell tower as part of new architectural plan for the university. The plan reflects Emile Bénard’s basic ideas, but is largely Howard’s own. After winning first prize, Bénard had visited Berkeley in 1900, but balked at a request to adjust his design concept and insulted the competition trustees and even Phoebe Hearst.

Howard, the Hearst competition’s fourth-place winner, now envisions one centerpiece bell tower – UC benefactress Jane K. Sather has asked for one. He is thought to have been inspired by American and European bell towers, including St. Mark’s Campanile in Venice. Over the next several years, he has various designs prepared. In one, student apartments and multiple windows are on each floor.